The nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty came into force in 1970, following widespread international concern about the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation and the spiraling nuclear weapon stocks of those states that had developed them. It is a binding multilateral treaty with the goal of general and complete nuclear weapons disarmament.

The UK is one of five states that had already acquired nuclear weapons before the treaty was signed – the other nuclear weapon states are the United States, Russia, China and France. The treaty establishes that those states without nuclear weapons agree not to acquire them and those with nuclear weapons agree to disarm. It also gives states the right to develop civil nuclear power. The UK does not have any right to possess nuclear weapons under the treaty; instead it is legally bound to disarm.

Three states, Israel, India and Pakistan did not sign the NPT. They stayed outside the treaty framework and have developed nuclear weapons. North Korea signed the treaty but withdrew from it in 2003.

Article VI of the treaty provides for nuclear disarmament:

Each of the Parties to the Treaty undertakes to pursue negotiations in good faith on effective measures relating to cessation of the nuclear arms race at an early date and to nuclear disarmament, and on a Treaty on general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control.

Review Conferences

The Review Conference of 2015 ended with no agreement, reportedly due to disagreements on the lack of progress on a nuclear weapon free zone in the Middle East.

The next Review Conference was due to take place in 2020 but has been repeatedly postponed due to Covid-19. It is now due to take place from 1 to 26 August 2022.

A Preparatory Committee meeting took place in 2019, at which CND was present. Read CND’s blogs from the conference.

Full text of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty